Fluoridating remineralizing of enamel
This invention relates to non-aqueous compositions and methods utilizing same which are useful to remineralize subsurface dental enamel.More specifically, this invention relates to stable, single-part compositions containing calcium and phosphate salts which may be in a hydrophilic, non-aqueous vehicle...
More specifically, this invention relates to stable, single-part compositions containing calcium and phosphate salts which may be in a hydrophilic, non-aqueous vehicle and which when applied to lesions in dental enamel result in remineralization of subsurface dental enamel and/or mineralization of tubules in dentin thereby counteracting caries and/or hypersensitivity 2.It is evident from the prior art that it is highly desirable to increase the available concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in the oral cavity to speed up the remineralization process. When a carious lesion is flooded with one of these supersaturated solutions, the calcium and phosphate ions in the form of precipitated hydroxyapatite remineralize the lesion. 4,397,837 (Raaf et al) provide a process for remineralizing demineralized enamel by the consecutive treatment of tooth surfaces with separate solutions containing calcium ions and phosphate ions.However, because of calcium phosphate's low solubility at the p H of sally a the addition of higher levels of dissolved calcium and phosphate ions is not easily accomplished. However, these solutions are impractical for use for several reasons. In this process fluoride ions may be present in the phosphate solutions.Remineralization of dental enamel has been carried out experimentally both in vivo and in vitro. First, the amount of calcium and phosphate ions available for remineralization in these supersaturated solutions is too low. It is immaterial which ionic solution is used to treat the teeth first.Saliva is supersaturated with respect to calcium and phosphate ions.Saliva therefore helps protect teeth against demineralization and can slowly remineralize teeth which have become demineralized by acids.
It is well known that the presence of fluoride ions can enhance the natural remineralization process and this is one of the accepted mechanisms by which fluoride toothpastes and rinses protect against caries.
The efficacy of fluoride containing toothpastes and rinses to remineralize teeth is limited by the modest levels of calcium and phosphate in saliva. Generally, the supersaturated solutions or slurries used in these patents for remineralization experiments have been prepared from a single form of calcium phosphate.
The Prior Art The primary component of the enamel and dentin in teeth is calcium phosphate in the form of calcium hydroxyapatite.
This material is highly insoluble at normal oral p Hs.
However, carious lesions form In teeth, when they are subjected to acids produced from the glycolysis of sugars by the action of various oral bacteria.
This is because calcium phosphate salts are more soluble in acidic media.