Consolidating concrete bridge structure applications
These include structure and mechanical properties of the hydrate phases, origins of cement cohesion, cement hydration, interfaces in concrete, and mechanisms of degradation .A major nanotechnology application is to include nano-sized reinforcement in cement-based materials such as carbon nanotubes or nanofibers.
Fiber research in concrete construction is an ongoing field and the use of carbon nanofibers (CNF) is examined.Fibers improve brittle materials such as concrete by enhancing tensile strength, ductility, toughness, and conductivity.Short-fiber composites are a class of strain sensor based on the concept of short electrically conducting fiber pull-out that accompanies slight and reversible crack opening.For a fiber composite to have strain sensing ability, the fibers must be more conducting than the matrix in which they are embedded, of diameter smaller than the crack length, and well dispersed.Decades later, Feynman’s concept morphed into the field of nanotechnology.According to the National Science Foundation and National Nanotechnology Initiative, the definition of nanotechnology includes three elements : Following this definition, in the past 25 years nanotechnology has expanded from Feynman’s idea and now finds applications in fields ranging from medical devices to nano-reinforced concrete [3, 4].
To date, the awareness and application of nanotechnology in the construction industry are increasing; however, progress is uneven in the current early stages of its practical exploitation.
Bartos  presents three reasons for this phenomenon: Despite these difficulties, there have been significant advances in nanoscience of cementitious materials with an increase in the understanding of basic phenomena in cement at the nanoscale.
Their orientations can be random, and they do not have to touch one another.
The electrical conductivity of the fibers enables the direct current (DC) electrical resistivity of the composites to change in response to strain change or temperature, allowing sensing.
Despite the fact that nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the introduction of the concept is credited to Nobel Prize winner Richard Feynman from his 1959 lecture, “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” .
Feynman considered the possibility of direct manipulation of individual atoms as a powerful form of synthetic chemistry.